Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene
Graphene is a broadband, fast saturable absorber well suited for passive mode-locking of lasers. The broadband absorption, ultra-short recovery time, and low cost of graphene absorbers compare favorably with traditional semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs). However, it remains difficult to tailor the parameters of a monolayer graphene absorber such as the modulation depth and the insertion loss; this limits the absorber’s design freedom, which is often required for mode-locking without Q-switching instability. We demonstrate in this work that, by hole-doping graphene chemically to various Fermi levels, the modulation depth and insertion loss are modified. Further control of graphene’s saturable absorption by electric-field gating and its application to active suppression of Q-switching in lasers is discussed.