Analysis and optimization of propagation losses in LiNbO3 optical waveguides produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation
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- Jubera, M., Villarroel, J., García-Cabañes, A. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2012) 107: 157. doi:10.1007/s00340-012-4897-9
The propagation losses (PL) of lithium niobate optical planar waveguides fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation (SHI), an alternative to conventional ion implantation, have been investigated and optimized. For waveguide fabrication, congruently melting LiNbO3 substrates were irradiated with F ions at 20 MeV or 30 MeV and fluences in the range 1013–1014 cm−2. The influence of the temperature and time of post-irradiation annealing treatments has been systematically studied. Optimum propagation losses lower than 0.5 dB/cm have been obtained for both TE and TM modes, after a two-stage annealing treatment at 350 and 375∘C. Possible loss mechanisms are discussed.