High-gain Al2O3:Nd3+ channel waveguide amplifiers at 880 nm, 1060 nm, and 1330 nm
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- Yang, J., van Dalfsen, K., Wörhoff, K. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2010) 101: 119. doi:10.1007/s00340-010-4001-2
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Neodymium-doped aluminum oxide films with a range of Nd3+ concentrations are deposited on silicon wafers by reactive co-sputtering, and single-mode channel waveguides with various lengths are fabricated by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence at 880, 1060, and 1330 nm from the Nd3+ ions with a lifetime of 325 μs is observed. Internal net gain at 845–945 nm, 1064, and 1330 nm is experimentally and theoretically investigated under continuous-wave excitation at 802 nm. Net optical gain of 6.3 dB/cm at 1064 nm and 1.93 dB/cm at 1330 nm is obtained in a 1.4-cm-long waveguide with a Nd3+ concentration of 1.68×1020 cm−3 when launching 45 mW of pump power. In longer waveguides a maximum gain of 14.4 dB and 5.1 dB is obtained at these wavelengths, respectively. Net optical gain is also observed in the range 865–930 nm and a peak gain of 1.57 dB/cm in a short and 3.0 dB in a 4.1-cm-long waveguide is obtained at 880 nm with a Nd3+ concentration of 0.65×1020 cm−3. By use of a rate-equation model, the gain on these three transitions is calculated, and the macroscopic parameter of energy-transfer upconversion as a function of Nd3+ concentration is derived. The high internal net gain indicates that Al2O3:Nd3+ channel waveguide amplifiers are suitable for providing gain in many integrated optical devices.