, Volume 96, Issue 1, pp 161-173
Date: 05 Mar 2009

Sensitive detection of temperature behind reflected shock waves using wavelength modulation spectroscopy of CO2 near 2.7 μm

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Tunable diode-laser absorption of CO2 near 2.7 μm incorporating wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) is used to provide a new sensor for sensitive and accurate measurement of the temperature behind reflected shock waves in a shock-tube. The temperature is inferred from the ratio of 2f signals for two selected absorption transitions, at 3633.08 and 3645.56 cm−1, belonging to the ν 1+ν 3 combination vibrational band of CO2 near 2.7 μm. The modulation depths of 0.078 and 0.063 cm−1 are optimized for the target conditions of the shock-heated gases (P∼1–2 atm, T∼800–1600 K). The sensor is designed to achieve a high sensitivity to the temperature and a low sensitivity to cold boundary-layer effects and any changes in gas pressure or composition. The fixed-wavelength WMS-2f sensor is tested for temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in a heated static cell (600–1200 K) and in non-reactive shock-tube experiments (900–1700 K) using CO2–Ar mixtures. The relatively large CO2 absorption strength near 2.7 μm and the use of a WMS-2f strategy minimizes noise and enables measurements with lower concentration, higher accuracy, better sensitivity and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to earlier work, using transitions in the 1.5 and 2.0 μm CO2 combination bands. The standard deviation of the measured temperature histories behind reflected shock waves is less than 0.5%. The temperature sensor is also demonstrated in reactive shock-tube experiments of n-heptane oxidation. Seeding of relatively inert CO2 in the initial fuel-oxidizer mixture is utilized to enable measurements of the pre-ignition temperature profiles. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy to this new class of diode lasers near 2.7 μm.