Enhanced refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose
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- Wang, L., Wang, K., Lu, Q. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2009) 94: 295. doi:10.1007/s00340-008-3340-8
We report on the fabrication and characterization of planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystals by 6.0 MeV C3+ ion implantation with the dose of 1×1014 ions/cm2. The dark mode spectroscopy of the planar waveguide was measured using a prism coupling arrangement. An increase of the both nx and ny refractive indices induced by the annealing after implantation is believed to be responsible for waveguide formation. The bright near-field intensity distribution of the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic modes in the annealed channel waveguide was collected and studied by end-coupling method.