Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd 3+ :MgO:LiNbO 3 : fabrication, guiding properties, and luminescence investigation
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- Dong, N., Chen, F., Tan, Y. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2009) 94: 283. doi:10.1007/s00340-008-3336-4
Optical channel waveguides in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystals are produced by using implantation of 500 keV protons at dose of 6×1016 ions/cm2 with a stripe photoresist mask. With thermal annealing treatment at 400°C for 60 min, the propagation losses of the waveguides could be reduced down to ∼4 dB/cm at wavelength of 632.8 nm. The calculated modal profiles are in fairly good agreement with the experimental near-field intensity distributions of the waveguide modes. The microluminescence investigation indicates the emission intensity of Nd3+ ions is only slightly modified with respect to the bulk, exhibiting potentials for laser applications.