Applied Physics B

, Volume 91, Issue 2, pp 257–264

On the design of electrically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Authors

  • P. Kreuter
    • Integrated Systems Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical EngineeringETH Zurich
  • B. Witzigmann
    • Integrated Systems Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical EngineeringETH Zurich
  • D.J.H.C. Maas
    • Institute of Quantum Electronics, Physics DepartmentETH Zurich
  • Y. Barbarin
    • Institute of Quantum Electronics, Physics DepartmentETH Zurich
  • T. Südmeyer
    • Institute of Quantum Electronics, Physics DepartmentETH Zurich
    • Institute of Quantum Electronics, Physics DepartmentETH Zurich
Open AccessArticle

DOI: 10.1007/s00340-008-2973-y

Cite this article as:
Kreuter, P., Witzigmann, B., Maas, D. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2008) 91: 257. doi:10.1007/s00340-008-2973-y

Abstract

Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) yield an excellent beam quality in conjunction with a scalable output power. This paper presents a detailed numerical analysis of electrically pumped VECSEL (EP-VECSEL) structures. Electrical pumping is a key element for compact laser devices. We consider the optical loss, current confinement, and device resistance. The main focus of our investigation is on the achievement of an adequate radial carrier distribution for fundamental transverse mode operation. It will be shown that a trade off between the conflicting optical and electrical optimization has to be found and we derive an optimized design resulting in guidelines for the design of EP-VECSELs which are compatible with passive mode locking.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2008