Thermal lensing, thermal management and transverse mode control in microchip VECSELs
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- Kemp, A., Maclean, A., Hastie, J. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2006) 83: 189. doi:10.1007/s00340-006-2151-z
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Finite-element analysis is used to explore the practicalities and power-scaling potential of quasi-monolithic microchip vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: thermal lensing and its implications for transverse mode control are emphasised. A comparison is made between the use of sapphire and diamond heat spreaders. The experimental characterisation of an InGaAs/sapphire microchip VECSEL is presented as an exemplar system and the factors affecting slope efficiency, threshold and output power roll-over are examined. By comparing experimental measurements with the finite-element model, the key role of thermal lensing in transverse mode control is demonstrated.