ZnO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals studied by X-ray and density measurements
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- Zhao, L., Wang, X., Wang, B. et al. Appl. Phys. B (2004) 78: 769. doi:10.1007/s00340-004-1503-9
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Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and density measurements were conducted on undoped and ZnO-doped congruent LiNbO3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Based on the experimental results, an intrinsic defect evolution model was proposed. When ZnO was doped into the congruent LN crystals, the Zn ions replaced first the Li ions and increased the density. Then, the Zn ions simultaneously replaced the Li ions and the antisite NbLis until all NbLi ions were replaced, which increased the density further. After that, the Zn ions substituted Nb ions in the Nb-sublattice sites with the reduction of the Li vacancies as self-compensation and thus reduced the density. When the Li vacancies disappeared completely, the Zn ions substituted simultaneously both Li ions in the Li-sublattice sites and Nb ions in the Nb-sublattice sites. The simultaneous substitution might finally lead to the generation of oxygen vacancies and decreased the density further.