Single laser exposure fabrication of diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystal microstructures using circularly polarized light
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- Chanda, D., Abolghasemi, L.E. & Herman, P.R. Appl. Phys. A (2008) 93: 33. doi:10.1007/s00339-008-4679-8
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Phase tunable multi-level diffractive optical elements define an attractive approach for single laser exposure fabrication of 3-dimensional photonic crystal microstructures. The significant advantage of these multi-level diffractive optical elements over two-level diffractive optical elements is the flexibility of fabricating a wide range of 3-dimensional periodic structures by manipulating the relative phase of different diffracted beams. Here, phase tuning was applied to demonstrate fabrication of a hybrid 3-dimensional structure intermediate between previously reported diamond-like Woodpile-type structure of tetragonal symmetry and structure having body-centered-tetragonal lattice symmetry. Circularly polarized light was applied for the first time to balance the diffraction order efficiencies and improve the structural uniformity. Design guidelines are presented for generating diamond-like photonic crystal template that possesses complete photonic bandgap when inverted with high refractive index materials.