Properties of the oxygen vacancy in ZnO
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- Hofmann, D., Pfisterer, D., Sann, J. et al. Appl. Phys. A (2007) 88: 147. doi:10.1007/s00339-007-3956-2
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As-grown ZnO bulk crystals and crystals annealed in vacuum, oxygen, or zinc vapour were characterized by electrical, optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experiments show that the residual carrier concentration is caused by residual H, Al, Ga and oxygen vacancies (VO) in the material. Annealing the samples in O2 at about 1000 °C (2 atm, 20 h) reduces the H and VO donor concentration by typically one order of magnitude. The photoluminescence and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) results suggest a correlation between the broad unstructured emission at 2.45 eV (“green band”) and a donor level 530 meV below the conduction band, it is attributed to the VO0/++transition. By using DLTS experiments with optical excitation it is possible to observe a metastable level 140 meV below the conduction band which is assigned to the VO2+/+ recharging. The results give evidence for the “negative-U” properties of the oxygen vacancy defects predicted by recent theoretical calculations.