Nanostructured transition metal oxides for aqueous hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors
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- Cottineau, T., Toupin, M., Delahaye, T. et al. Appl. Phys. A (2006) 82: 599. doi:10.1007/s00339-005-3401-3
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In this paper, we wish to present an overview of the research carried out in our laboratories with low-cost transition metal oxides (manganese dioxide, iron oxide and vanadium oxide) as active electrode materials for aqueous electrochemical supercapacitors. More specifically, the paper focuses on the approaches that have been used to increase the capacitance of the metal oxides and the cell voltage of the supercapacitor. It is shown that the cell voltage of an electrochemical supercapacitor can be increased significantly with the use of hybrid systems. The most relevant associations are Fe3O4 or activated carbon as the negative electrode and MnO2 as the positive. The cell voltage of the Fe3O4/MnO2 device is 1.8 V and this value was increased to 2.2 V by using activated carbon instead of Fe3O4. These two systems have shown superior behavior compared to a symmetric MnO2/MnO2 device which only works within a 1 V potential window in aqueous K2SO4. Furthermore, the activated carbon/MnO2 hybrid device exhibits a real power density of 605 W/kg (maximum power density =19.0 kW/kg) with an energy density of 17.3 Wh/kg. These values compete well with those of standard electrochemical double layer capacitors working in organic electrolytes.