Pulsed laser deposition: metal versus oxide ablation
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- Doeswijk, L., Rijnders, G. & Blank, D. Appl. Phys. A (2004) 78: 263. doi:10.1007/s00339-003-2332-0
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We present experimental results of pulsed laser interaction with metal (Ni, Fe, Nb) and oxide (TiO2, SrTiO3, BaTiO3) targets. The influence of the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses on the resulting target morphology are discussed. Although different responses for metal and oxide targets to repetitive laser irradiation could be expected due to the different band structures of metals and oxides, the optical response is quite similar for 248-nm laser irradiation. Therefore, the difference in response is largely caused by differences in thermal properties. Metal targets show periodic structures of the order of micrometers after consecutive pulses of laser radiation, while the SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 targets show a flat surface after ablation for relatively low fluences (1.0 J cm-2). The observed TiO2 target ablation characteristics fall in between those of the ablated metals and perovskites, because ablation results in the presence of Ti-rich material, which shields the underlying stoichiometric target material from ablation. The final target morphology is dependent on fluence, number of pulses, and the movement of the target itself (rotating, scanning, or stationary). It can take between 15 and 75 pulses to reach a steady-state target morphology on a stationary target.