, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1846-1854
Date: 19 Mar 2013

“Dynamic spot sign” on CT perfusion source images predicts haematoma expansion in acute intracerebral haemorrhage

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Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the association between dynamic progressive enhancing foci (“dynamic spot sign”) in acute haematoma on CT perfusion source images (CTP-SI) and haematoma expansion.

Methods

One hundred twelve consecutive patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage according to unenhanced CT, CTP and CT angiography within 6 h of symptom onset were prospectively evaluated. Patients were dichotomised according to the presence/absence of the dynamic spot sign on CTP-SI in haematoma. The predictive value of haematoma expansion was analysed.

Results

Haematoma expansion was detected in 28 patients (25.0 %) on follow-up unenhanced CT images. Thirty patients (26.8 %) demonstrated the dynamic spot sign on CTP-SI, about 83.3 % of patients with haematoma expansion (P < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and kappa value for expansion were 89.3 %, 94.0 %, 96.3 %, 83.3 % and 0.814, respectively. In multiple regression, the presence of the CTP dynamic spot sign within acute haematomas independently predicted haematoma expansion; the univariate analysis OR value was 131.667 (29.386–590.289), P < 0.0001. Moreover, the multivariate analysis CTP dynamic spot sign OR value was 203.996 (32.123–1295.488), P < 0.0001.

Conclusions

The CTP-SI dynamic spot sign is associated with acute haematoma expansion, is more direct in showing active ongoing bleeding and has a higher predictive value than the CTA spot sign.

Key Points

It is important to identify potential progression of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

Dynamic enhancement within CT perfusion source images is associated with haemorrhage expansion.

The CTP dynamic spot sign may be present throughout arterial to venous phase imaging.

The CTP dynamic spot sign carries a higher predive value for haematoma expansion than CTA.