Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Donnerstag, F., Ding, X., Pape, L. et al. Eur Radiol (2012) 22: 506. doi:10.1007/s00330-011-2286-0
- 451 Downloads
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively.
DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings.
DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality.
In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome.
• DWI MR imaging may detect early CNS involvement in haemolytic uraemic syndrome
• Different pathogenetical mechanisms may contribute to the CNS disease in HUS
• Early MRI findings do not seem to allow prediction of clinical outcome