Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 111–117

Direct sowing of Coffea arabica somatic embryos mass-produced in a bioreactor and regeneration of plants


  • D. Etienne-Barry
    • Laboratorio de biotecnología, CATIE, 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica
  • B. Bertrand
    • CIRAD-CP/PROMECAFE/IICA, Ap. 55, 2200 San José, Costa Rica
  • N. Vasquez
    • Laboratorio de biotecnología, CATIE, 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica
  • H. Etienne
    • CIRAD-CP/PROMECAFE/CATIE, Apartado 11, CATIE 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica e-mail: Fax: +506-556-09-38
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s002990050720

Cite this article as:
Etienne-Barry, D., Bertrand, B., Vasquez, N. et al. Plant Cell Reports (1999) 19: 111. doi:10.1007/s002990050720


 The effect of germination conditions on the morphology of Coffea arabica L. somatic embryos mass-produced in a 1-l temporary immersion bioreactor (RITA®) was studied with emphasis on direct sowing in soil. Using germinated embryos, direct sowing resulted in a highly successful conversion of embryos into plants. A culture density above 1600 embryos per 1-l bioreactor positively affected embryo morphology by causing higher embryonic axis elongation (+4–5 mm). At this density, the addition of a high concentration of sucrose (234 mM) 2 weeks before sowing promoted an increase in effective plant conversion in soil (78%) and a vigorous vegetative growth of the resulting plants. Furthermore, direct sowing reduced handling time to 13% and shelving area requirements to 6.3% of the values obtained by conventional acclimatization of plants developed on gel media.

Key words AcclimatizationBioreactorCoffeeSomatic embryogenesisPlant regeneration

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999