Review

Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 689-694

First online:

Metabolic engineering of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

  • Benye LiuAffiliated withKey Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of SciencesInstitute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Technical University Braunschweig
  • , Hong WangAffiliated withKey Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • , Zhigao DuAffiliated withKey Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • , Guofeng LiAffiliated withKey Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • , Hechun YeAffiliated withKey Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences Email author 

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Abstract

Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is an effective antimalarial agent, especially for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. To date, A. annua is still the only commercial source of artemisinin. The low concentration of artemisinin in A. annua, ranging from 0.01 to 0.8% of the plant dry weight, makes artemisinin relatively expensive and difficult to meet the demand of over 100 million courses of artemisinin-based combinational therapies per year. Since the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is not commercially feasible at present, another promising approach to reduce the price of artemisinin-based antimalarial drugs is metabolic engineering of the plant to obtain a higher content of artemisinin in transgenic plants. In the past decade, we have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of A. annua, and have successfully transferred a number of genes related to artemisinin biosynthesis into the plant. The various aspects of these efforts are discussed in this review.

Keywords

Artemisia annua Artemisinin Metabolic engineering Metabolic profiling