, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 896-906
Date: 31 Mar 2006

Genomic instability in phenotypically normal regenerants of medicinal plant Codonopsis lanceolata Benth. et Hook. f., as revealed by ISSR and RAPD markers

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Abstract

Codonopsis lanceolata Benth. et Hook. f., commonly known as bonnet bellflower, is a high-valued herb medicine and vegetable. In this study, a large number of plants were regenerated via organogenesis from immature seed-derived calli in C. lanceolata by a simple and efficient method. Compared with the mother donor plant, the regenerated plants did not exhibit visible phenotypic variations in six major morphological traits examined at the stage of one-season-maturity under field conditions. To gain insight into the genomic stability of these regenerated plants, 63 individuals were randomly tagged among a population of more than 2,000 regenerants, and were compared with the single mother donor plant by two molecular markers, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Apparent genomic variation was detected in the 63 regenerants, whereas preexisting heterozygosiy in the donor plant was deemed minimal by testing 30 seedlings germinated from selfed seeds of the same donor plant. The percentages of polymorphic bands (PPB) in the ISSR and RAPD analysis were respectively 15.7 and 24.9% for the 63 regenerated plants. Cluster analysis indicates that the genetic similarity values calculated on the basis of RAPD and ISSR data among the 64 plants (63 regenerated and one donor) were respectively 0.894 and 0.933, which allow classification of the plants into distinct groups. Nineteen randomly isolated bands underlying the changed RAPD or ISSR patterns were sequenced, and three of them showed significant homology to known-function genes. Detailed pairwise sequence comparison at one locus between the donor plant and a regenerant revealed that insertion of two short (24 and 19 bp) stretches of nucleotides in the regenerated plant relative to the donor plant occurred in an apparently stochastic manner.

Communicated by F. Sato