Cytokine modulators in the treatment of sarcoidosis
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- Bargagli, E., Olivieri, C. & Rottoli, P. Rheumatol Int (2011) 31: 1539. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-1969-9
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Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous lung disease in which several cytokines play a pivotal pathogenetic role. Steroid-resistant disease can be treated with immunosuppressive drugs, antimalarial therapies and recently with anti-TNFα agents. The use of biological agents for the treatment of sarcoidosis springs from research into the pathogenesis of the disease and also from the experience of rheumatologists with other chronic inflammatory diseases. Rituximab, golimumab and ustekinumab are cytokine modulators, useful in the treatment of immunoinflammatory disorders, for which randomized trials to evaluate safety and efficacy in sarcoidosis are not yet available. Novel anticytokine drugs administered alone or in association may offer a new approach to treatment of the disease. This review focuses on recent advances in anti-TNFα agents and cytokine modulators for the treatment of sarcoidosis and their therapeutic prospects.
Tumour necrosis factor