Rheumatology International

, Volume 32, Issue 8, pp 2307–2311

Serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor are associated with rheumatoid arthritis course

  • Mara Anaís Llamas-Covarrubias
  • Yeminia Valle
  • Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández
  • Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán
  • María Guadalupe Ramírez-Dueñas
  • Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
  • Ciro Estrada-Chávez
  • José Francisco Muñoz-Valle
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00296-011-1951-6

Cite this article as:
Llamas-Covarrubias, M.A., Valle, Y., Navarro-Hernández, R.E. et al. Rheumatol Int (2012) 32: 2307. doi:10.1007/s00296-011-1951-6

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Many cytokines have been found to be associated with RA pathogenesis and among them is macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The aim of this study was to determine whether MIF serum levels are associated with RA course, clinical activity, and clinical biomarkers of the disease. MIF levels were determined in serum samples of 54 RA patients and 78 healthy subjects (HS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Disease activity was evaluated using the DAS28 score. Patients were subgrouped according to disease activity and years of evolution of disease. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS 10.0 and GraphPad Prism 5 software. RA patients presented increased levels of MIF as compared to HS. MIF levels were raised on early stages of RA and tend to decrease according to years of evolution. Moreover, MIF levels positively correlated with rheumatoid factor in RA patients and with C reactive protein in all individuals studied. Our findings suggest that MIF plays a role in early stages of RA.

Keywords

Rheumatoid arthritisMIFClinical activityDisease evolution

Abbreviations

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

MIF

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

HS

Healthy subjects

RF

Rheumatoid factor

CRP

C reactive protein

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

FLS

Fibroblast like synoviocytes

DMARDs

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

NSAIDs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PLA2

Phospholipase A2

COX-2

Cyclooxigenase 2

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mara Anaís Llamas-Covarrubias
    • 1
  • Yeminia Valle
    • 2
  • Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández
    • 2
  • Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán
    • 1
  • María Guadalupe Ramírez-Dueñas
    • 3
  • Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
    • 4
  • Ciro Estrada-Chávez
    • 5
  • José Francisco Muñoz-Valle
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  2. 2.IIRSME, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Inmunología, Departamento de Fisiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  4. 4.Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la CiénegaUniversidad de GuadalajaraOcotlánMexico
  5. 5.Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnológica y Diseño del Estado de JaliscoGuadalajaraMexico
  6. 6. IIRSME, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de GuadalajaraZapopanMexico