Current Genetics

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 339–343

An improved transformation protocol for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans

Technical Note

DOI: 10.1007/s00294-002-0349-0

Cite this article as:
Walther, A. & Wendland, J. Curr Genet (2003) 42: 339. doi:10.1007/s00294-002-0349-0


Commonly used protocols for the transformation of the dimorphic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans rely on established methods for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With respect to transformation efficiency, however, there is a great difference between these two organisms when using the lithium acetate procedure. Here we present a modified version of this protocol for use with C. albicans. Among the different parameters tested, two turned out to be particularly relevant and, when combined, resulted in an up to 10-fold increase in transformation efficiency (400–500 integrative transformants) compared with previous protocols: first, adjusting the heat shock applied to the cells to 44 °C for C. albicans instead of 42 °C for S. cerevisiae and, second, treating C. albicans cells with lithium acetate in an overnight incubation instead of for 30 min as used for S. cerevisiae. With these modifications, the lithium acetate procedure becomes a very efficient and reliable tool for C. albicans transformation.


Transformation Lithium acetate Integration Heat shock Yeast 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Junior Research Group: Growth-Control of Fungal PathogensHans-Knöll Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung and Department of Microbiology, Friedrich-Schiller-UniversityJenaGermany