Current Microbiology

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 195–201

Biochemical and Microbial Analysis of Ovine Rumen Fluid Incubated with 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX)


DOI: 10.1007/s00284-012-0144-1

Cite this article as:
Perumbakkam, S. & Craig, A.M. Curr Microbiol (2012) 65: 195. doi:10.1007/s00284-012-0144-1


In this study, the rumen was assessed for its potential to detoxify RDX using molecular microbial ecology as well as analytical chemistry techniques. Results indicated significant loss (P < 0.05) of RDX in <8-h post incubation, and qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis showed evidence for the formation of 1-NO-RDX (M–O + HCOO) and methylenedinitramine metabolites. A total of 1106 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced, and most sequences associated with either the phyla Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. A LibCompare analysis for the RDX treatment showed an enrichment (P < 0.01) of the genus Prevotella. From these results, it can be concluded that the rumen is capable of detoxifying RDX, and the members of the genus Prevotella are linked to this detoxification.

Supplementary material

284_2012_144_MOESM1_ESM.doc (44 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 43 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Molecular ToxicologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary MedicineOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA