Similarities and differences in the regulation of leukocyte extravasation and vascular permeability
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- Vestweber, D., Wessel, F. & Nottebaum, A.F. Semin Immunopathol (2014) 36: 177. doi:10.1007/s00281-014-0419-7
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Leukocyte extravasation is regulated and mediated by a multitude of adhesion and signaling molecules. Many of them enable the capturing and docking of leukocytes to the vessel wall. Others allow leukocytes to crawl on the apical surface of endothelial cells to appropriate sites of exit. While these steps are well understood and the adhesion molecules mediating these interactions are largely identified, a still growing number of adhesion receptors mediate the diapedesis process, the actual migration of leukocytes through the endothelial cell layer, and the underlying basement membrane. In most cases, it is not known which molecular processes they actually mediate, whether they enable the migration of leukocytes through the endothelial cell layer or whether they are involved in the destabilization of endothelial junctions. In addition, leukocytes are able to circumvent junctions and transcytose directly through the body of endothelial cells. While this latter route indeed exists, recent work has highlighted in vivo the junctional pathway as the prevalent way of leukocyte exit in various inflamed tissues. Recent work elucidating molecular mechanisms that regulate endothelial junctions and thereby leukocyte extravasation and vascular permeability will be discussed.