Role of Th17 cells and IL-17 in lung transplant rejection
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- Shilling, R.A. & Wilkes, D.S. Semin Immunopathol (2011) 33: 129. doi:10.1007/s00281-011-0257-9
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In the past decade, advances in immunology have led to the recognition that T cell differentiation is not simply Th1 or Th2 but involves differentiation to other subsets, such as T regulatory cells, T follicular helper cells, and Th17 cells. Th17 cells, characterized by production of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-21, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but also play an important role in host defense and mucosal immunity. IL-17, with its pleiotropic effects on stromal cells, as well as hematopoietic cells, has long been recognized as a possible mediator of rejection after lung transplantation. Recent data have implicated IL-17 and Th17 cells in the development of autoimmunity and chronic rejection after lung transplantation in both animal models and humans. In this review, we will discuss the current data on Th17 and the prospects for the future for lung transplantation.