Nox enzymes and oxidative stress in the immunopathology of the gastrointestinal tract
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- Rokutan, K., Kawahara, T., Kuwano, Y. et al. Semin Immunopathol (2008) 30: 315. doi:10.1007/s00281-008-0124-5
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Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is closely linked to cancer development. Innate immune abnormalities and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species through a phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2) are key issues in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammation-dependent carcinogenesis. Besides Nox2, functionally distinct homologues (Nox1, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1, and Duox2) have been identified. Nox1 and Duox2 are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the functional roles of Nox/Duox in the gastrointestinal tract are still unclear, we will review their potential roles in the gastrointestinal immunopathology, particularly in H. pylori-induced inflammation, IBD, and malignancy.