Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 261–274

Strategies that modulate inflammasomes—insights from host–pathogen interactions

  • James B. Johnston
  • Masmudur M. Rahman
  • Grant McFadden
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00281-007-0080-5

Cite this article as:
Johnston, J.B., Rahman, M.M. & McFadden, G. Semin Immunopathol (2007) 29: 261. doi:10.1007/s00281-007-0080-5

Abstract

The innate immune system is a dynamic and complex network for recognizing and responding to cellular insult or tissue damage after infection or injury. The primary effector mechanism of innate immunity is the generation of acute and chronic inflammatory responses through regulation of the processing and activation of proinflammatory caspases, particularly caspase 1, and cytokines, most notably IL-1β and IL-18. Inflammasomes, cytosolic multi-protein complexes that function as molecular scaffolds for caspase activation, have recently emerged as the pivotal mechanism by which host innate immune and inflammatory responses are regulated. In this review, we investigate the mechanisms by which inflammasomes are modulated, both by endogenous host systems and by microbial pathogens.

Keywords

Host–pathogen interactionInnate immunityPyrin domainImmune modulationInflammasome inhibitors

Abbreviations

ASC

apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

CAPS

cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

CARD

caspase activation and recruitment domain

caspase

cysteine-aspartate proteases

COP

CARD-only protein

DDF

death domain fold

FCAS

familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome

IL

interleukin

IL-1R

IL-1 receptor

IFN

interferon

IPAF

ICE-protease activating factor

IRF

interferon response factor

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LRR

leucine-rich repeat region

MDP

muramyl dipeptides

MWS

Muckle–Wells syndrome

NACHT

NAIP, C2TA, HET-E, and TP1 domain

NALP

NACHT-, LRR- and PYD-containing protein

NF-κB

nuclear transcription factor κB

NLR

NOD-like receptor

NOD

nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain

NOMID

neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease

p38MAPK

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

PAMP

pathogen-associated molecular pattern

POP

PYD-only protein

PRR

pathogen recognition receptor

PYD

PYRIN domain

TIR

Toll/interleukin-1 receptor

tlpA

TIR-like protein A

TLR

Toll-like receptor

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Johnston
    • 2
  • Masmudur M. Rahman
    • 1
  • Grant McFadden
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Nutrisciences and HealthNational Research Council CanadaCharlottetownCanada