Biologics in the prevention and treatment of graft rejection
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- Marks, R. & Finke, J. Springer Semin Immun (2006) 27: 457. doi:10.1007/s00281-006-0014-7
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Biologics are used in solid organ allografting and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the induction and maintenance of immunosuppression. In solid organ transplantation, antibodies targeting T cells are part of induction protocols administered for initiation of immunosuppression during organ transfer and during sustained post transplant periods for prevention of graft rejection. Several clinical trials in renal allografting provide data for the efficacy and safety of biologics in this clinical setting. Application of biologics also allows the reduction of calcineurin inhibitors, thereby reducing toxicity and improving long-term graft function. In acute rejection periods, anti T cell antibodies are established in steroid-resistant cases. Strategies interfering with the activity of soluble cytokines are less frequently applied for solid organ transplantation. In HSCT, T cell directed antibodies as part of conditioning protocols improve engraftment and reduce the incidence of detrimental graft vs host disease (GvHD). In acute GvHD, both antibodies targeting T cells and cytokines like TNF-α are established therapeutics for remission induction.