Phase I trial of oral S-1 combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin for advanced biliary tract cancer (KHBO1002)
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- Kanai, M., Hatano, E., Kobayashi, S. et al. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (2012) 69: 1181. doi:10.1007/s00280-011-1818-2
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We aimed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the addition of S-1, an oral fluorouracil derivative, to gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy, which is the current standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer.
Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer were eligible for inclusion. The planned dosages of gemcitabine (mg/m2)/cisplatin (mg/m2)/S-1 (mg/m2/day) were as follows: level 0, 800/25/60; level 1, 1,000/25/60; and levels 2 and 3, 1,000/25/80. In each cycle, gemcitabine and cisplatin were intravenously administered on day 1 (or days 1 and 8 at level 3), and S-1 was orally administered twice daily on days 1–7 (or days 1–14 at level 3); this was repeated every 14 days (or 21 days at level 3).
Seventeen patients were enrolled, and level 1 was chosen as the starting dose. Two of six patients developed DLTs (grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 febrile neutropenia) at level 1, and the dose was escalated to level 2. DLTs (grade 3 rashes and grade 3 vasovagal reactions) occurred in two of six assessable patients at level 2; we then proceeded to level 3. The first three assessable patients enrolled at level 3 developed DLTs (two cases of grade 4 neutropenia, one of grade 4 leucopenia, two of grade 3 fatigue, one of grade 3 anorexia, and one of grade 3 febrile neutropenia) during their first cycle, and this dose was determined to be the MTD. Therefore, we selected level 2 as the recommended dose (RD) for a subsequent phase II study.
We determined the RD of gemcitabine/cisplatin/S-1 combination therapy for advanced biliary tract cancer; we are proceeding to a phase II study to investigate the efficacy of this combination therapy for advanced biliary tract cancer.