Phase IB study of sorafenib in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with refractory solid tumors
Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006), a multikinase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis by targeting Raf kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. This study investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of sorafenib in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin.
Patients with advanced solid tumors were treated with 75 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1 and 1,250 mg/m2 gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. On day 5 of cycle 1, sorafenib 400 mg twice daily was started and continued throughout the complete treatment cycles without interruption.
Nineteen patients were valid for safety analysis. The most frequent toxicities related to the cytotoxic agents were hematological disorders. Sorafenib-related toxicities were skin-related, gastrointestinal, and constitutional symptoms. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug–drug interaction between sorafenib, cisplatin, and gemcitabine was detected. AUC0-72 and Cmax of total and unbound platinum were only marginally changed by concomitant sorafenib. Concomitant sorafenib increased mean AUC and Cmax of gemcitabine by 12 and 21%.
Sorafenib as continuous oral treatment in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction was detected. Preliminary antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic, and safety data support the recommendation of 400 mg sorafenib twice daily in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine to be further evaluated in clinical studies.