, Volume 77, Issue 1-2, pp 69-73

Acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB AML-M1) in the setting of HIV infection and G-CSF therapy: a case report and review of the literature

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Although hematologic dysplasia is common in HIV disease, evolution to AML is unusual. We report a case of AML in a patient with stage-C3 AIDS who had been previously treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This 41-year-old black man presented with pancytopenia (Hg 8.6 g/dl, Hct 24.3%, platelets 16,000/mm3, WBC 0.6× 103/mm3) and hemoptysis. His peripheral smear manifested 19% blasts. His bone marrow biopsy was hypocellular (20%) with greater than 90% blasts, which were positive for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B. The blasts were negative for nonspecific esterase. Immunophenotypic analysis by flow cytometry showed the majority of cells to be of myeloid lineage, expressing CD13, and CD45 at low intensity. In addition, there was aberrant expression of CD2 and no expression of CD14 or CD4. The diagnosis of AML-FAB-M1 was made. The patient refused chemotherapy. Of the rare cases of AML in HIV patients previously reported in the literature, the majority were of the monocytic or myelomonocytic subtype. This case is of special interest because of prior G-CSF therapy. In this setting, the relationship between HIV, G-CSF, and subsequent AML is controversial.

Received: October 28, 1997 Accepted: March 31, 1998