Original Article

Annals of Hematology

, Volume 88, Issue 3, pp 261-266

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of refractory pure red cell aplasia after major ABO-incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  • Baijun FangAffiliated withHenan Tumor Hospital, Henan Institute of Haematology, Henan Medical School, Henan UniversityInstitute of Haematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
  • , Yongping SongAffiliated withHenan Tumor Hospital, Henan Institute of Haematology, Henan Medical School, Henan University Email author 
  • , Ning LiAffiliated withHenan Tumor Hospital, Henan Institute of Haematology, Henan Medical School, Henan University
  • , Jing LiAffiliated withInstitute of Haematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
  • , Qin HanAffiliated withInstitute of Haematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
  • , Robert Chunhua ZhaoAffiliated withInstitute of Haematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College

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Abstract

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a well-known, although infrequent, hematological complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PRCA occurs in cases of major ABO mismatch between donor and recipient and is believed to be due to inhibition of donor erythroid progenitors by residual host isohemagglutinins. The purpose of our study was to further evaluate the efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC) as the salvage therapy for refractory PRCA after major ABO-incompatible HSCT. Two patients with refractory pure red cell aplasia received intravenous infusions of AMSC at a dose of 1.5 × 106/kg of the patients’ weight, and rapid recovery from PRCA without any side effects was observed. We conclude that AMSC seems to be a promising therapeutic option in patients with PRCA after ABO-mismatched HSCT, in whom conventional treatment fails.

Keywords

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Pure red cell aplasia Mesenchymal stem cell