Original Article

Annals of Hematology

, Volume 84, Issue 5, pp 311-316

Combined thalidomide and cyclophosphamide treatment for refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma patients: a prospective phase II study

  • Sjoerd HovengaAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Simon M. G. J. DaenenAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Joost T. M. de WolfAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Gustaaf W. van ImhoffAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Hanneke C. Kluin-NelemansAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Wim J. SluiterAffiliated withDepartment of Endocrinology, University Hospital Groningen
  • , Edo VellengaAffiliated withDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital Groningen Email author 

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Abstract

Thalidomide is an effective agent for patients with refractory multiple myeloma (MM) with a response rate of 30–40% at doses of 200–800 mg but with considerable side effects. We questioned whether lower doses of thalidomide in combination with a daily dose of cyclophosphamide might be an effective regimen with fewer side effects. We included 38 patients with relapsed or refractory MM. The median doses of thalidomide and cyclophosphamide were 100 and 95 mg/day, respectively. Side effects were observed in all patients, with neurotoxicity as the most troublesome. With a median follow-up of 14 months 84% of the patients responded, including 64% partial responses. The median time of progression-free survival was 30 months and the median overall survival time was 20 months. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combination of low-dose thalidomide with a daily dose of cyclophosphamide is an effective regimen with a high overall response rate and manageable side effects.

Keywords

Thalidomide Cyclophosphamide Multiple myeloma