April 2013, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 263-267,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 02 Oct 2012
An unusual case of left venous renal entrapment syndrome: a new type of nutcracker phenomenon?
Left venous renal entrapment syndrome was observed during multidetector 64-row computer tomography and color Doppler ultrasonography in a 58-year-old Caucasian female hospitalized due to choledocholithiasis. The patient demonstrated no typical symptoms of nutcracker syndrome. The left renal vein (LRV) was compressed as it passed between the superior mesenteric artery and the right renal artery. The LRV lumen measured 1.7 × 7.8 mm (width × height) at the point of narrowing and 7.5 × 17 mm before this. Secondary to the nutcracker phenomenon, the course of left ovarian vein was winding and was significantly wider than the contralateral vessel.
Ali-El-Dein B, Osman Y, Shehab El-Din AB, El-Diasty T, Mansour O, Ghoneim MA (2003) Anterior and posterior nutcracker syndrome: a report on 11 cases. Transpl Proc 35:851–853CrossRef
De Schepper A (1972) “Nutcracker” phenomenon of the renal vein and venous pathology of the left kidney. J Belge Radiol 55:507–511PubMed
El-Sadr AR, Mina E (1950) Anatomical and surgical aspects in the operative management of varicocele. Urol Cutaneous Rev 54:257–262PubMed
Grant JCB (1937) Method of anatomy. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 158–159
Hohenfellner M, Steinbach F, Schultz-Lampel D (1991) The nutcracker syndrome: new aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 146:685–688PubMed
Kahn PC (1973) Selective venography of the branches. In: Ferris EJ, Hipona FA, Kahn PC (eds) Venography of the inferior vena cava and its branches. Krieger, Huntington, pp 154–224
Lau JLT, Lo R, Chan FL, Wong KK (1986) The posterior “nutcracker”: hematuria secondary to retroaortic left renal vein. Urology 20:437–439CrossRef
Lopatkin NA, Morozov AV, Lopatkina LN (1978) Essential renal haemorrhages. Eur Urol 4:115–119PubMed
Nishimura Y, Fushiki M, Yoshida M (1986) Left renal vein hypertension in patients with left renal bleeding of unknown origin. Radiology 160:663–667PubMed
Shin JI, Lee JS (2005) Nutcracker phenomenon or nutcracker syndrome? Nephrol Dial Transpl 20:2015CrossRef
Wendel RG, Crawford ED, Hehman KN (1980) The “nutcracker” phenomenon: an unusual cause for renal varicosities with hematuria. J Urol 123:761–763PubMed
- An unusual case of left venous renal entrapment syndrome: a new type of nutcracker phenomenon?
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
Volume 35, Issue 3 , pp 263-267
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Nutcracker phenomenon
- Computer tomography angiography
- Venous renal entrapment syndrome
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Angiology, Medical University of Łódź, Narutowicza 60, 90-136, Łódź, Poland
- 2. Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Łódź, Narutowicza 60, 90-136, Łódź, Poland
- 3. Radiology Department, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcińskiego 22, 90-153, Łódź, Poland