, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 33-38

Additional renal arteries incidence and morphometry

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Advances in surgical and uro-radiological techniques dictate a re-appraisal and definition of renal arterial variations. This retrospective study aimed at establishing the incidence of additional renal arteries. Two subsets were analysed viz. a) Clinical series-130 renal angiograms performed on renal transplant donors, 32 cadaver kidneys used in renal transplantation b) Cadaveric series - 74 en-bloc morphologically normal kidney pairs. The sex and race distribution was males 140, females 96 African 84, Indian 91, White 43 and “Coloured” 18, respectively. Incidence of first and second additional arteries were respectively, 23.2% (R 18.6% L 27.6%) and 4.5% (R 4.7% L 4.4%). Additional arteries occurred more frequently on the left (L 32.0% R 23.3%). The incidence bilaterally was 10.2% (first additional arteries, only). The sex and race incidence (first and second additional) was males, 28.0%, 5.1% females, 16.4%, 3.8% and African 31.1%, 5.4% Indian 13.5%, 4.5% White 30.9%, 4.4% and “Coloured” 18.5%, 0% respectively. Significant differences in the incidence of first additional arteries were noted between sex and race. The morphometry of additional renal arteries were lengths (cm) of first and second additional renal arteries 4.5 and 3.8 (right), 4.9 and 3.7 (left) diameters 0.4 and 0.3 (right), 0.3 and 0.3 (left). Detailed morphometry of sex and race were also recorded. No statistically significant differences were noted. Our results of the incidence of additional renal arteries of 27.7% compared favourably to that reported in the literature (weighted mean 28.1%). The study is unique in recording detailed morphometry of these vessels. Careful techniques in the identification of this anatomical variation is important since it impacts on renal transplantation surgery, vascular operations for renal artery stenosis, reno-vascular hypertension, Takayasu’s disease, renal trauma and uro-radiological procedures.