Gunshot Wounds to the Face: Emergency Interventions and Outcomes
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Gunshot wounds to the face (GSWF) may produce life-threatening injuries. Our objective is to describe outcomes of and factors related to interventions for urgent airway control (UAC) and urgent bleeding control (UBC) as well as to analyze complications associated with GSWF.
This was a retrospective study of 155 GSWF patients who were admitted to two Level 1 academic trauma centers over an 11-year period. Demographic details, injuries sustained, interventions performed, and timing of the interventions were recorded. Morbidity and mortality data were evaluated.
Overall, 115 (74 %) patients suffered isolated GSWF, and none died. Of the 90 (58 %) patients requiring UAC, only three had a cricothyroidotomy. Of the 41 (26 %) patients requiring UBC, only four had angiographic embolization. Intraoral involvement and extrafacial injuries were associated with both UAC and UBC. Overall, 75 patients (48 %) required operations on the bones, eyes, or both. Complications developed in 14 and were treated successfully.
UAC and UBC are required frequently after GSWF and are associated with intraoral involvement and injuries beyond the face. Simple methods, such as orotracheal intubation and packing, are typically sufficient for successful management. About half of the patients need further surgery, with infrequent morbidity.
- Gotsch KE, Annest JL, Mercy JA et al (2001) Surveillance for fatal and nonfatal firearm-related injuries. MMWR 50:1–32
- McLean JN, Moore CE, Yellin SA (2005) Gunshot wounds to the face: acute management. Facial Plast Surg 21:191–198 CrossRef
- Demetriades D, Chahwan S, Gomez H et al (1998) Initial evaluation and management of gunshot wounds to the face. J Trauma 45:39–41 CrossRef
- Hollier L, Grantcharova EP, Kattash M (2001) Facial gunshot wounds: a 4-year experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 59:277–282 CrossRef
- Weider L, Hughes K, Ciarochi J et al (1999) Early versus delayed repair of facial fractures in the multiply injured patient. Am Surg 65:790–793
- Siberchicot F, Pinsolle J, Majoufre C et al (1998) Gunshot injuries to the face: analysis of 165 cases and reevaluation of the primary treatment. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 43:132–140
- Motamedi MH (2011) Management of firearm injuries to the facial skeleton: outcomes from the early primary intervention. J Emerg Trauma Shock 4:212–216 CrossRef
- Kaufman Y, Cole P, Hollier LH Jr (2009) Facial gunshot wounds: trends in management. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2:85–90 CrossRef
- Glapa M, Kourie JF, Doll D et al (2007) Early management of gunshot injuries to the face in civilian practice. World J Surg 31:2104–2110. doi:10.1007/s00268-007-9220-2 CrossRef
- Pereira C, Boyd JB, Dickenson B et al (2012) Gunshot wounds to the face: level I urban trauma center—a 10-year level I urban trauma center experience. Ann Plast Surg 68:378–381 CrossRef
- Gunshot Wounds to the Face: Emergency Interventions and Outcomes
World Journal of Surgery
Volume 37, Issue 10 , pp 2348-2352
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, 820 Harisson Avenue, FGH 4, Boston, MA, 02118, USA
- 2. Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
- 3. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA