, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 682-689
Date: 02 Mar 2007

Development of Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts

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Abstract

Introduction

Cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery and peripheral vascular pathologies, is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and Western countries. There is a pressing need to develop small-diameter vascular vessels for bypass surgery and other vascular reconstructive procedures. Tissue engineering offers the prospect of being able to meet the demand for replacement of diseased vessels. Significant advances have been made in recent studies and provide confidence that success is attainable. For instance, a completely cellular approach culturing cells into tissue sheets and wrapping these layers was able to form a layered cellular vascular graft with impressive strength.

Methods/Results

In our experiments, decellularization and heparin immobilization grafts from porcine tissues implanted in a canine model could be repopulated from the host cells, indicating the grafts’ potential to develop into living tissues that can adapt and respond to changes in the body.

Conclusions

This review summarizes the current status of vascular grafts used clinically, updates the most recent developments on vascular tissue engineering, and discusses the challenges for the future.

This work was presented at the Molecular Surgeon Symposium on Vascular Injury, Repair, and Remodeling at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, May 15 and 16, 2006. The symposium was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, (to C. Chen: R13 HL0836500)