Environmental Management

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 716–726

College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement


    • School of Forestry and Environmental Studies & Institution for Social and Policy StudiesYale University
  • Murray B. Rutherford
    • School of Resource and Environmental ManagementSimon Fraser University
  • Matthew R. Auer
    • School of Public and Environmental AffairsUniversity of Indiana
  • David N. Cherney
    • Center for Science and Technology Policy ResearchUniversity of Colorado
  • Richard L. Wallace
    • Environmental Studies Program, Ursinus College
  • David J. Mattson
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  • Douglas A. Clark
    • School of Environment & Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan
  • Lee Foote
    • Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of Alberta
  • Naomi Krogman
    • Department of Rural EconomyUniversity of Alberta
  • Peter Wilshusen
    • Environmental Studies ProgramBucknell University
  • Toddi Steelman
    • Department of Forestry and Environmental ResourcesNorth Carolina State University

DOI: 10.1007/s00267-011-9635-2

Cite this article as:
Clark, S.G., Rutherford, M.B., Auer, M.R. et al. Environmental Management (2011) 47: 716. doi:10.1007/s00267-011-9635-2


Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.


Environmental studiesEnvironmental sciencesEnvironmental educationInterdisciplinary educationHuman dignitySustainabilityProblem-solving skillsLeadership

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011