Environmental Management

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 717–733

Context and Systems: Thinking More Broadly About Effectiveness in Strategic Environmental Assessment in China


DOI: 10.1007/s00267-008-9123-5

Cite this article as:
Bina, O. Environmental Management (2008) 42: 717. doi:10.1007/s00267-008-9123-5


China is an illustrative—and extreme—case of the difficulties of balancing the pursuit of economic, social, and environmental objectives. In 2003 it adopted a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for its plans and programs (referred to here as PEIA) with the aim of moving towards greater environmental sustainability. The literature has explored primarily the issue of methods and legal procedures. This research contributes to the analysis of PEIA through a different set of interpretative lens. Drawing on recent developments in the theory and practice of SEA, I propose a conceptualization of SEA effectiveness that combines direct and incremental impacts, and a need for context-specific systems as a way to focus on the relationship between assessment, planning, and their context, and thus maximize effectiveness. This framework underpins the analysis of China’s experience, which I explore with the help of interview material and the literature. The result is an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of PEIA in terms of its purpose, assessment concept, process, and methods. The detailed analysis of six aspects of the context helps explain the origin of such shortcomings, and identify opportunities for its improvement. I conclude defining elements of a context-specific system for SEA that seeks to maximize the opportunity for incremental, as well as direct, effectiveness in China.


Strategic Environmental AssessmentEffectivenessSystemContextPurposeStrategyChina

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Filosofia, Faculdade de LetrasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Centre of Urban and Regional Systems, Instituto Superior TécnicoLisboaPortugal
  3. 3.Geography and Resource ManagementThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinPeople’s Republic of China