Monitoring Forest Carbon Sequestration with Remote Sensing and Carbon Cycle Modeling
First Online: 04 March 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Turner, D., Guzy, M., Lefsky, M. et al. Environmental Management (2004) 33: 457. doi:10.1007/s00267-003-9103-8 Abstract
Sources and sinks of carbon associated with forests depend strongly on the management regime and spatial patterns in potential productivity. Satellite remote sensing can provide spatially explicit information on land cover, stand-age class, and harvesting. Carbon-cycle process models coupled to regional climate databases can provide information on potential rates of production and related rates of decomposition. The integration of remote sensing and modeling thus produces spatially explicit information on carbon storage and flux. This integrated approach was employed to compare carbon flux for the period 1992–1997 over two 165-km
2 areas in western Oregon. The Coast Range study area was predominately private land managed for timber production, whereas the West Cascades study area was predominantly public land that was less productive but experienced little harvesting in the 1990s. In the Coast Range area, 17% of the land base was harvested between 1991 and 2000. Much of the area was in relatively young, productive-age classes that simulations indicate are a carbon sink. Mean annual harvest removals from the Coast Range were greater than mean annual net ecosystem production. On the West Cascades study area, a relatively small proportion (< 1%) of the land was harvested and the area as a whole was accumulating carbon. The spatially and temporally explicit nature of this approach permits identification of mechanisms underlying land base carbon flux. Keywords Carbon Forest Monitoring Remote sensing Modeling References
Acker, S. A., Harcombe, P. A., Harmon, M. E., Greene, S. E. 2000 Biomass accumulation over the first 150 years in coastal Oregon Picea–Tsuga forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 11 725 738 Google Scholar
Acker, S. A., Halpern, C. B., Harmon, M. E., Dyrness, C. T. 2002 Trends in bole biomass accumulation, net primary production and tree mortality in Psuedotsuga menziesii forests of contrasting age Tree Physiology 22 213 217 PubMed Google Scholar
Birdsey, R. A., Plantinga, A. J., Heath, L. S. 1993 Past and prospective changes in U.S. forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 58 33 40 CrossRef Google Scholar
Bosquet, P., Peylin, P., Ciais, P., Quere, C. L., Friedlingstein, P., Tans, P. P. 2000 Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980. Science 290 1342 1346 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Cohen, W. B., Spies, T. A., Fiorella, M. 1995 Estimating the age and structure of forests in a multi-ownership landscape of western Oregon, U.S.A. International Journal of Remote Sensing 16 721 746 Google Scholar
Cohen, W. B., Harmon, M. E., Wallin, D. O., Fiorella, M. 1996 Two decades of carbon flux from forests of the Pacific Northwest. BioScience 46 836 844 Google Scholar
Cohen, W. B., Fiorella, M., Gray, J., Helmer, J. E., Anderson, K. 1998 An efficient and accurate method for mapping forest clearcuts in the Pacific Northwest using Landsat imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 64 283 300 Google Scholar
Cohen, W. B., Spies, T. A., Alig, R. J., Oetter, D. R., Maiersperger, T. K., Fiorella, M. 2002 Characterizing 23 years (1972–95) of stand replacement disturbance in western Oregon forests with Landsat imagery. Ecosystems 5 122 137 CrossRef Google Scholar
Cooper, C. F. 1983 Carbon in managed forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13 155 166 Google Scholar
Garman, S. L., Swanson, F. J., Spies, T. A. 1999 Past, present, future landscape patterns in the Douglas-fir region of the Pacific Northwest. Rochelle, J.A. Lehmann, L. A. Wisniewski, J. eds. Forest fragmentation: Wildlife and management implications Brill Academic Publishing The Netherlands 61 86 Google Scholar
Grier, C. C., Running, S. R. 1977 Leaf area of mature northwestern coniferous forests: relation to site water balance. Ecology 58 893 899 Google Scholar
Harmon, M. E. 2001 Carbon sequestration in forests: Addressing the scale question. Journal of Forestry 99 24 29 Google Scholar
Harmon, M. E., Ferrell, W. K., Franklin, J. F. 1990 Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science 247 699 7002 Google Scholar
Harmon, M. E., Garman, S. L., Ferrell, W. K. 1996a Modeling historical patterns of tree utilization in the Pacific Northwest: carbon sequestration implications. Ecological Applications 6 641 652 Google Scholar
Harmon, M. E., Harmon, J. M., Ferrell, W. K., Brooks, D. 1996b Modeling carbon stores in Oregon and Washington forest products: 1900–1992. Climate Change 33 521 550 Google Scholar
Harris, L. D. 1984The fragmented forest University of Chicago Press Chicago, Illinois Google Scholar
Kimball, J. S., Running, S. W., Saatchi, S. S. 1999 Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid scale landcover complexity. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 27,789 27,801 Google Scholar
Law, B. E., Waring, R. H., Anthoni, P. M., Aber, J. D. 2000 Measurements of gross and net ecosystem productivity and water vapor exchange of a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem, and an evaluation of two generalized models. Global Change Biology 6 155 168 CrossRef Google Scholar
Law, B. E., Thornton, P. E., Irvine, J., Anthoni, P. M., Van Tuyl, S. 2001 Carbon storage and fluxes in ponderosa pine forests at different developmental stages. Global Change Biology 7 1 23 CrossRef Google Scholar
Law, B. E., Turner, P. P., Campbell, J. , Lefsky, M. S., Guzy, M. S., Sun, O., Van Tuyl, Harmon M., and Cohen, M. In press. Carbon fluxes across regions: Observational constraints at multiple scales.
In J. Wu, B. Jones, H. Li, and O. Loucks (eds.), Scaling and uncertainty analysis in ecology: Methods and applications. Columbia University Press, New York.
Parson, E. A., Haas, P. M., Levy, M. A. 1992 A summary of the major documents signed at the Earth Summit and the Global Forum. Environment 34 12 15 Google Scholar
Powell, D. S., Faulkner,J. L., Darr, D. R., MacCleery, Z. Zhu, and D. W. 1993. Forest Resources of the United States, 1992. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report RM-234. Washington, DC.
Rasmussen, M. C., Ripple, W. J. 1998 Retrospective analysis of forest landscape patterns in western Oregon. Natural Areas Journal 18 151 163 Google Scholar
Richards, F. 1959 A flexible growth function for empirical use. Journal of Experimental Botany 10 290 300 Google Scholar
Runyon, J., Waring, R. H., Goward, S. N., Welles, J. M. 1994 Environmental limits on net primary production and light use efficiency across the Oregon transect. Ecological Applications 4 226 237 Google Scholar
Schimel, D. S., Potter, C. S. 1995 Process modeling and spatial extrapolation. Matson, P. A. Harriss, R. C. eds. Biogenic trace gases: Measuring emissions from soil and water Blackwell Science Oxford 358 383 Google Scholar
Spanner, M. A., L. Johnson, J. Miller, and others. 1994. Remote sensing of seasonal leaf area index across the Oregon transect.
Ecological Applications 4:258–271.
Spies, T. A., Ripple, W. J., Bradshaw, G. A. 1994 Dynamics and pattern of a managed coniferous forest landscape in Oregon. Ecological Applications 4 555 568 Google Scholar
Sprugel, D. G. 1985 Natural disturbances and ecosystem energetics. Pickett, S. T. A. White, P. S. eds. The ecology of natural disturbances and patch dynamics Academic Press New York 335 352 Google Scholar
Steffen, W., Noble, I., Canadell, J., Apps, M., Schulze, E.-D., Jarvis, P. G., Baldocchi, D., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Ehleringer, J., Farquhar, G., Field, C. B., Ghazi, A., Gifford, R., Heimann, M., Houghton, R., Kabat, P., Körner, C., Lambin, E., Linder, S., Mooney, H. A., Murdiyarso, D., Post, W. M., Prentice, C., Raupach, M. R., Schimel, D. S., Shvidenko, A., Valentini, R. 1998 The terrestrial carbon cycle: Implications for the Kyoto protocol. Science 280 1393 1394 CrossRef Google Scholar
Thornton, P. E., Running, S. W. 1999 An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 93 211 228 CrossRef Google Scholar
Thornton, P. E., Running, S. W., White, M. A. 1997 Generating surfaces of daily meteorological variables over large regions of complex terrain. Journal of Hydrology 190 214 251 CrossRef Google Scholar
Thornton, P. E., Hasenauer, H., White, M. A. 2000 Simultaneous estimation of daily solar radiation and humidity from observed temperature and precipitation: An application over complex terrain in Austria. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 104 255 271 CrossRef Google Scholar
Thornton, P. E., Law, B. E., Gholz, H. L., Clark, K. L., Falge, E., Ellsworth, D. S., Goldstein, A. H., Monson, R. K., Hollinger, D., Falk, M., Chen, J., Sparks, J. P. 2002 Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needeleaf forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 185 222 CrossRef Google Scholar
Turner, D. P., Koerper, G.J., Harmon, M. E., Lee, J. J. 1995 A carbon budget for forests of the conterminous United States. Ecological Applications 5 421 436 Google Scholar
Turner, D. P., Winjum, J. K., Kolchugina, T. P., Cairns, M. A. 1997 Accounting for biological and anthropogenic factors in national land-base carbon budgets. Ambio 26 220 226 Google Scholar
Turner, D. P., Cohen, W. B., Kennedy, R. E., Fassnacht, K. S., Briggs, J. M. 1999 Relationships between leaf area index and TM spectral vegetation indices across three temperate zone sites. Remote Sensing of Environment 70 52 68 CrossRef Google Scholar
Turner, D. P., Cohen, W. B., Kennedy, R. E. 2000 Alternative spatial resolutions and estimation of carbon flux over a managed forest landscape in western Oregon. Landscape Ecology 15 441 452 CrossRef Google Scholar
Turner, D. P., Guzy, M., Lefsky, M. A., VanTuyl, S., Sun, O., Daly, C., Law, B. E. 2003 Effects of land use and fine scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape. Tellus 55B 657 668 Google Scholar
UN FCCC. 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; available at www.unfccc.de/resource/conv/index.html.
USDA Forest Service. 2001. RPA Assessment of forest and range lands. Report No. FS-687. USDA Forest Service, Washington, D/C, 78 pp.
Wallin, D. O., Harmon, M.E., Cohen, W. B., Fiorella, M., and Ferrell, W. K. 1996. Use of remote sensing to model land use effects on carbon flux in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Pages 219–237
in H.L. Gholz, K. Nakane, and H. Shimoda (eds.), The use of remote sensing in the modeling of forest productivity at scales from the stand to the globe. Kluwer Academic P, Dordrecht Netherlands
White, M. A., Thornton, P. E., Running, S. W., Nemani, R. 2000 Parameterization and sensitivity analysis of the BIOME-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model: Net primary production controls. Earth Interactions 4 1 85 CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004