Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 441–444

Complications with the Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Facial Rejuvenation: Report of 8 Cases

  • Marcus Castro Ferreira
  • Alessandra Grassi Salles
  • Rodrigo Gimenez
  • Maria Fernanda Dematte Soares
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00266-004-0031-7

Cite this article as:
Ferreira, M.C., Salles, A.G., Gimenez, R. et al. Aesth Plast Surg (2004) 28: 441. doi:10.1007/s00266-004-0031-7

Abstract

The botulinum toxin A is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes a reversible, selective muscle relaxation that leads to a temporary flattening of the mechanical component of wrinkling without the stigmata of invasive surgery. Since the end of the 1980s, this neurotoxin has been used to treat mimic facial lines with good results. Although this is considered a safe therapy, with adverse effects typically self-limited, more severe complications have been observed when it is used by nonskilled physicians or in improper dosages. This article reports eight patients treated with botulinum toxin A for aesthetic purposes who developed different complications. Treatment of the complication included the use of electrical stimulation, lymphatic drainage, antiinflammatory therapy, dipivefrine cloridrate drops, and other approaches. With specific treatment for each patient, the lengths of these complications seemed to be reduced.

Keywords

AestheticBotulinum toxinComplicationsFacial rejuvenationTreatment

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus Castro Ferreira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alessandra Grassi Salles
    • 1
  • Rodrigo Gimenez
    • 1
  • Maria Fernanda Dematte Soares
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – sala 1360São PauloBrazil