Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 317–327

There is a limbo under the moon: what social interactions tell us about the floaters’ underworld

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00265-011-1279-y

Cite this article as:
Penteriani, V. & del Mar Delgado, M. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2012) 66: 317. doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1279-y


The ultimate and proximate causes of natal dispersal have been extensively investigated, but the behaviour of dispersers in relation to social interactions has been largely neglected. Here, we investigated the social organisation of floating individuals during their dispersal by analysing the behaviour of 40 radio-tagged eagle owls Bubo bubo during the wandering and stop phases of dispersal. Unexpectedly, eagle owl floaters mixed with conspecifics independently of their sex, age, phase of dispersal, birthplace, health status and habitat features, showing an ‘underworld’ of interactions characterised by the absence of obvious social organisation or short-term strategies. Non-breeding owls were not transient floaters that occurred at numerous sites for short periods of time but rather had fairly stable home ranges: they attempted to settle as soon as possible within well-defined home ranges. The spatial distribution pattern of floaters and high rates of home range overlap support the prediction that floating individuals are not spatially segregated, challenging the expectation that dominance by size, age and/or health status may determine the exclusive use of some portions of the dispersal area. Finally, (1) the short distances among conspecifics and the extensive home range overlaps allowed us to discard the possibility that neighbouring floaters represent a real cost during dispersal and (2) floater interactions showed a lack of clear mechanisms for avoidance of kin competition among offspring or inbreeding.


Bubo bubo Conspecific interactions Eagle owl Floaters Home range Natal dispersal Settlement area 

Supplementary material

265_2011_1279_MOESM1_ESM.doc (314 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 1Patterns of the number of neighbours, permanence period, distances among neighbours and size and overlap of temporary settlement areas with respect to the sex, phases of dispersal, birthplace and early breeding attempts of floaters (1A) and for the interactions between sexes, phases of dispersal and birthplace (1B). Although minor but non-significant differences were found (see text), the relationships among floating eagle owls appeared to be independent of the social environment and the various stages of the dispersal process. (DOC 314 kb) (DOC 314 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de DoñanaC.S.I.C.SevilleSpain
  2. 2.Finnish Museum of Natural History, Zoological MuseumUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Metapopulation Research Group, Department of BiosciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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