, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 457-464
Date: 10 Mar 2006

Meta-analysis of foraging and predation risk trade-offs in terrestrial systems

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Abstract

Although there is ample evidence for the generality of foraging and predation trade-offs in aquatic systems, its application to terrestrial systems is less comprehensive. In this review, meta-analysis was used to analyze experiments on giving-up-densities in terrestrial systems to evaluate the overall magnitude of predation risk on foraging behavior and experimental conditions mediating its effect. Results indicate a large and significant decrease in foraging effort as a consequence of increased predation risk. Whether experiments were conducted under natural or artificial conditions produced no change in the overall effect predation had on foraging. Odor and live predators as a correlate of predation risk had weaker and nonsignificant effects compared to habitat characteristics. The meta-analysis suggests that the effect of predation risk on foraging behavior in terrestrial systems is strongly dependent on the type of predation risk being utilized.

Communicated by A. Cockburn