ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 313-320

A novel glycoprotein obtained from Chlorella vulgaris strain CK22 shows antimetastatic immunopotentiation

  • K. TanakaAffiliated withResearch Laboratories, Chlorella Industries Co. Ltd., 1343 Hisatomi, Chikugo City, Fukuoka 833, Japan Fax: +81 942 52 2190
  • , Akira YamadaAffiliated withKurume University Research Center for Innovative Cancer Therapy, and Department of Immunology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume City 830, Japan
  • , Kiyoshi NodaAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812, Japan
  • , Takashi HasegawaAffiliated withResearch Laboratories, Chlorella Industries Co. Ltd., 1343 Hisatomi, Chikugo City, Fukuoka 833, Japan Fax: +81 942 52 2190
  • , Masao OkudaAffiliated withResearch Laboratories, Chlorella Industries Co. Ltd., 1343 Hisatomi, Chikugo City, Fukuoka 833, Japan Fax: +81 942 52 2190
  • , Yukihiro ShoyamaAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812, Japan
  • , Kikuo NomotoAffiliated withDepartment of Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812, Japan

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Abstract

 A glycoprotein extract (CVS), derived from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris, strain CK22, exhibited a pronounced antitumor effect against both spontaneous and experimentally induced metastasis in mice. Inhibition of tumor metastasis was enhanced when intratumor administration of CVS was followed by s.c. injection of CVS. Anti-metastatic immunopotentiation was observed in euthymic mice, but not in athymic nude mice. The antitumor activity of CVS was reflected in antigen-specific, T-cell-mediated immunity. Both CD4 and CD8 T cells contributed to the antimetastatic effects, as shown by in vivo depletion experiments with anti-T-cell subset antibodies. Furthermore, CVS caused the recruitment of T cells to the regional lymph nodes and their proliferation in these organs. The CD4-positive population, following CVS injection at the time of tumor rechallenge, displayed a pronounced increase in the proportion of T cells that were CD18 bright, CD44 bright, CD25+, CD54+, CD69+ or CD71+ in the lymph nodes. Thus, CVS induces T cell activation in peripheral lymph nodes in tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that CVS augments antimetastatic immunity through T cell activation in lymphoid organs and enhances recruitment of these cells to the tumor sites. Presurgical treatment with CVS might prevent metastasis or tumor progression.

Key words Chlorella vulgaris MethA Metsatasis Antitumor immunity CD4 T cell