Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, 60:1211

Lung cancer and Toll-like receptors

  • Aldo Pinto
  • Silvana Morello
  • Rosalinda Sorrentino
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00262-011-1057-8

Cite this article as:
Pinto, A., Morello, S. & Sorrentino, R. Cancer Immunol Immunother (2011) 60: 1211. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1057-8

Abstract

Lung carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is a non-immunogenic cancer, resistant to immune surveillance. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) connect the innate to the adaptive immune system. Given that cancerous cells evade the immune system, the activation of TLRs could represent a potential target for cancer therapy. The induction of Th1-like and cytotoxic immunity by TLR signalling could lead to tumour cell death, resulting in tumour regression or arrest. However, basic research and clinical trials revealed that the activation of specific TLRs, such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, do not have any anti-tumour activity in lung carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that TLRs are important regulators of tumour biology; however, little is known about their function in lung cancer. Thus, in order to develop new therapeutic approaches, further studies are needed to understand the connection between TLRs and lung cancer progression. This review focuses on the potential mechanisms by which TLR ligands can facilitate or not lung cancer and lung metastases establishment/progression.

Keywords

Toll-like receptors Inflammation Lung cancer Immuno-editing 

Abbreviations

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation factor

TRIF

TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

DAMPs

Danger-associated molecular patterns

DCs

Dendritic cells

(pDCs)

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells

hsp

Heat shock proteins

Treg

T regulatory cells

IDO

Indoleamine-2, 3-dyoxigenase

HMGB1

High-mobility group box 1

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aldo Pinto
    • 1
  • Silvana Morello
    • 1
  • Rosalinda Sorrentino
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences Department (FARMABIOMED)University of SalernoFiscianoItaly