Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 60, Issue 8, pp 1127–1135

Ten years of progress in vaccination against cancer: the need to counteract cancer evasion by dual targeting in future therapies


  • Yeranddy A. Alpizar
    • Division of Tumoral BiologyCentre for Molecular Immunology
  • Benjamin Chain
    • Division of Infection and ImmunityUniversity College London (UCL)
  • Mary K. Collins
    • Division of Infection and ImmunityUniversity College London (UCL)
  • John Greenwood
    • UCL Institute of Ophthalmology
  • David Katz
    • Division of Infection and ImmunityUniversity College London (UCL)
  • Hans J. Stauss
    • UCL Institute of Ophthalmology
    • UCL Institute of Ophthalmology
Focussed Research Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00262-011-0985-7

Cite this article as:
Alpizar, Y.A., Chain, B., Collins, M.K. et al. Cancer Immunol Immunother (2011) 60: 1127. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-0985-7


Although cancer immunology has made vigorous progress over the last decade, its future remains uncertain. Tumors have clearly proved subject to immune surveillance, leading to antigenic editing, and means of activating both T and B arms of the immune system have been devised. Therapeutic vaccination and monoclonal antibody therapy have so far proved disappointing, because tumors prove adept at evasion from immune control. Dual targeting could well counteract evasion, provided that the two targets are independent and are attacked simultaneously. This stage has nearly but not quite been reached in several forms of immunotherapy, particularly of B-cell cancers, although such treatment also carries hazards.



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© Springer-Verlag 2011