Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 433–442

Immunologic biomarkers as correlates of clinical response to cancer immunotherapy

Focussed Research Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00262-010-0960-8

Cite this article as:
Disis, M.L. Cancer Immunol Immunother (2011) 60: 433. doi:10.1007/s00262-010-0960-8

Abstract

Over the last few years, several newly developed immune-based cancer therapies have been shown to induce clinical responses in significant numbers of patients. As a result, there is a need to identify immune biomarkers capable of predicting clinical response. If there were laboratory parameters that could define patients with improved disease outcomes after immunomodulation, product development would accelerate, optimization of existing immune-based treatments would be facilitated and patient selection for specific interventions might be optimized. Although there are no validated cancer immunologic biomarkers that are predictive of clinical response currently in widespread use, there is much published literature that has informed investigators as to which markers may be the most promising. Population-based studies of endogenous tumor immune infiltrates and gene expression analyses have identified specific cell populations and phenotypes of immune cells that are most likely to mediate anti-tumor immunity. Further, clinical trials of cancer vaccines and other cancer directed immunotherapy have identified candidate immunologic biomarkers that are statistically associated with beneficial clinical outcomes after immune-based cancer therapies. Biomarkers that measure the magnitude of the Type I immune response generated with immune therapy, epitope spreading, and autoimmunity are readily detected in the peripheral blood and, in clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy, have been associated with response to treatment.

Keywords

ImmunityBiomarkersT cellClinical responseCorrelationImmunotherapy

Abbreviations

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

APC

Antigen-presenting cells

CI

Confidence interval

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4

DFS

Disease-free survival

DTH

Delayed type hypersensitivity

GM-CSF

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor

HER2

HER-2/neu

HPV

Human papilloma virus

HR

Hazard ratio

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

KLH

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin

NCI

National Cancer Institute

NK

Natural killer

OS

Overall survival

PDL

Programmed death ligand

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

RR

Relative risk

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tumor Vaccine Group, Center for Translational Medicine in Women’s HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA