Resistance to the proapoptotic effects of interferon-gamma on melanoma cells used in patient-specific dendritic cell immunotherapy is associated with improved overall survival
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- Cornforth, A.N., Fowler, A.W., Carbonell, D.J. et al. Cancer Immunol Immunother (2011) 60: 123. doi:10.1007/s00262-010-0925-y
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The use of whole cell tumor vaccines and various means of loading antigen onto dendritic cells have been under investigation for over a decade. Induction of apoptosis and the exposure of immune-stimulating proteins are thought to be beneficial for the use in immunotherapy protocols, but conclusive evidence in the clinical setting has been lacking. Incubation of melanoma cell lines with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) increased phosphatidylserine and calreticulin exposure, but not in the IFN-γ-resistant cell line Lu-1205. Short-term autologous melanoma cell lines used for loading dendritic cells for immunotherapy showed differential response to the pro-apoptotic effects of IFN-γ. These IFN-γ-treated tumor cells (TCs) were irradiated and used for loading antigen for dendritic cell therapy. A log-rank comparison of survival for patients whose TCs were found to be either sensitive (upregulated phosphatidylserine and calreticulin) or insensitive to IFN-γ revealed a strongly significant correlation to progression-free (p = 0.003) and overall survival (p = 0.002) favorably in those patients whose cell lines were resistant to the proapoptotic effect of IFN-γ. These results suggest that the use of IFN-γ in anti-melanoma dendritic cell-based immunotherapy may only be beneficial when the cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to IFN-γ and support the contention that the use of some apoptotic cells in vaccines may be detrimental.