Regulatory T cells in colorectal cancer patients suppress anti-tumor immune activity in a COX-2 dependent manner
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Naturally occurring regulatory T (TR) cells suppress autoreactive T cells whereas adaptive TR cells, induced in the periphery, play an important role in chronic viral diseases and cancer. Several studies indicate that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors prevent cancer development of colon adenomas and delay disease progression in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We have shown that adaptive TR cells express COX-2 and produce PGE2 that suppress effector T cells in a manner that is reversed by COX-inhibitors.
Methods and results
Here we demonstrate that CRC patients have elevated levels of PGE2 in peripheral blood, and CRC tissue samples and draining lymph nodes display increased numbers of FOXP3+ TR cells. Depletion of TR cells from PBMC enhanced anti-tumor T-cell responses to peptides from carcinoembryonic antigen. Furthermore, the COX inhibitor indomethacin and the PKA type I antagonist Rp-8-Br-cAMPS significantly improved the anti-tumor immune activity.
We suggest that adaptive TR cells contribute to an immunosuppressive microenvironment in CRC and inhibit effector T cells by a COX-2–PGE2-dependent mechanism and thereby facilitate tumor growth. Therapeutic strategies targeting TR cells and the PGE2–cAMP pathway may be interesting to pursue to enhance anti-tumor immune activity in CRC patients.
- Regulatory T cells in colorectal cancer patients suppress anti-tumor immune activity in a COX-2 dependent manner
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Volume 57, Issue 6 , pp 813-821
- Cover Date
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- Colorectal cancer
- Regulatory T cells
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1112, Blindern, 0317, Oslo, Norway
- 2. Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
- 3. Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
- 4. The Pathology Clinic, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Oslo, Norway