Abdominal Imaging

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 635–647

The current role of minimally invasive therapies in the management of liver tumors


    • Department on Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyEberhard Karls University Hospital of Tübingen
  • Andreas Boss
    • Division of Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyUniversity Hospital Zurich
  • Thomas Helmberger
    • Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear MedicineKlinikum Bogenhausen
  • Philippe Pereira
    • Clinic for Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear MedicineSLK-Kliniken

DOI: 10.1007/s00261-011-9749-2

Cite this article as:
Rempp, H., Boss, A., Helmberger, T. et al. Abdom Imaging (2011) 36: 635. doi:10.1007/s00261-011-9749-2


This is a review of minimally invasive therapy options for liver tumors, such as highly focused ultrasound, microwave ablation, and irreversible electroporation, as well as new aspects of radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is recommended for patients with early-stage HCC with up to 3 lesions with a tumor diameter within 3 cm and for patients with non-resectable liver metastasis. Indications and contraindications to treatment are designated, and different modalities for image-based therapy guidance are compared. Options for therapy monitoring and controlling are reviewed, namely intraprocedural tools, imaging and functional parameters and their evolution during therapy. Prevention and control of local recurrences is discussed. We also present a short review of current clinical results in treating liver metastasis and primary liver tumors.

Key words

Ablative therapiesMicrowave ablationRadiofrequency ablationHighly focused ultrasoundIrreversible electroporationMR functional imagingMR thermometryHepatocellular carcinomaLiver metastasis

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011