Nodal staging in genitourinary cancers
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- Saksena, M.A., Kim, J.Y. & Harisinghani, M.G. Abdom Imaging (2006) 31: 644. doi:10.1007/s00261-006-9020-4
In patients with genitourinary cancers nodal staging is an integral part of the pretreatment evaluation. The presence of nodal metastatic disease plays an important role in predicting prognosis and treatment planning. Although some nodal groups can be evaluated clinically, most patients undergo various imaging studies for nodal staging. Each modality has its own unique attributes and applications. This article reviews various imaging modalities, namely, contrast enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography, used for nodal staging in patients with genitourinary cancers and highlights their strengths and weaknesses. Emerging novel techniques such as lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced MRI are also highlighted.